Before examining this study, if you have not already done so, we recommend that you examine Is Jesus the Archangel? Part 1.
The next instance of the word “Michael” is in Daniel 12:1...
"At that time shall Michael stand up (Strong’s H5979*), the great prince who stands (Strong’s H5979) for the children of your people; and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time: and at that time your people shall be delivered, everyone who shall be found written in the book.-- Daniel 12:1, World English
Now at that time Michael, the great prince who stands guard* over the sons of your people, will arise*. And there will be a time of distress such as never occurred since there was a nation until that time ; and at that time your people, everyone who is found written in the book, will be rescued. --.New American Standard.
*Hebrew word is often transliterated as “Amad”
Michael is again identified as the “great prince” as related to Daniel’s people. Michael here stands up, arises, takes a stand, and one of the things that results is the salvation, deliverance of Daniel’s people. Jesus referenced to this prophecy as recorded in the following places in the New Testament: Matthew 24:21 ; Mark 13:19 ; Luke 21:23 Luke 21:25,26. Thus, the prophecy relates, not just to Israel after the flesh, but also to the Gentile believers who become Abraham’s seed by faith, and possibly to all who become God’s children during the age to come. -- Romans 8:20,21.
The reference in Hebrews 2:10 supports that it is Jesus, the chief prince (Archegos, Strong’s G747*) who stands up as the savior of his people. This corresponds well with the description of Michael as the “great prince”.
The expression, “at that time”, found at the beginning of the verse refers to “the time of the end” that is spoken of in Daniel 11:35. Since the heathen are said to be, during this time of the end, still in ignorance (Daniel 12:9,10), we know that this “time” when Michael stands up is sometime before Satan is abyssed. (Revelation 20:3) Before God’s people are delivered, however, there is a time of trouble, and then after that time of trouble, all whose names are written in the Book of Life will be delivered. If the “book of life” is the same as that spoken of in Revelation 20:12,15; 21:27, then the latter reference to “at that time” -- referring to this deliverance -- is a period of time that begins before Satan is abyssed and continues until after the thousand years (spoken of in Revelation 20:2,3,5) have ended, with the final deliverance being that which is spoken of Revelation 20:8,9. All of the Lord’s sheep will then fully one. -- John 10:16.
Forms of the word transliterated as “Amad” are used twice in the verse. This word carries various shades of meaning, depending on how it being used. The first instance of its use in Daniel 12:1 (as found in the World English and most translations) in in the sense of “standing up” as a king, a ruler, a prince. In this sense, we find that this word is used in Daniel 8:22,23,25; 11:2,3,4,7,20,21. Thus, this is a reference to a time when Michael stands up, assumes his Kingly authority, which results both in trouble in the world and also in the deliverance of those who proves to be Daniel’s people. Who could this Michael be, but the Lord Jesus Christ, who, when he returns delivers those who are his sheep, both the sheep of this age, as well as those who become his sheep during the “last day” of judgment? The New Testament verifies that it is Jesus who comes in a time of trouble that results in the deliverance of both the consecrated of this age, as well as the consecrated of the age to come. -- Matthew 25:31-46; Mark 13:26,27; John 14:3; Romans 8:18-25; Acts 17:31; 1 Thessalonians 1:10; 4:16; 2 Thessalonians 2:11; Hebrews 9:28; 1 John 3:2; Revelation 11:15-18; 20:1-15; 21:1-5.
The next instance in which the word Michael appears is in Jude 1:9 (or, as some prefer, Jude 9).
But when the archangel Michael, contending with the devil, disputed about the body of Moses, he did not presume to pronounce a reviling [Greek, Blasphemia, blasphemy] judgment [Greek, krisis] upon him, but said, "[Yahweh] rebuke you." — Revised Standard Version.But Michael, the archangel, when contending with the devil and arguing about the body of Moses, dared not bring against him an abusive condemnation, but said, “May [Yahweh] rebuke you!” — World English Bible translationBut Michael the archangel, when contending with the Devil, he argued about the body of Moses; he dared not bring a judgment of blasphemy, but said, “Let [Yahweh] rebuke you!” — Literal Translation of the Bible, Jay Green.
It is in this verse that Michael is shown to be the archangel.
There has been a tremendous amount of speculation resulting with varied opinions concerning this verse. Jude makes reference to an event that is not spoken of in the Old Testament. We do not know the source of Jude’s comments, so we can only speculate that there may have been records or books available to Jude that we no longer have, or that he spoke of something that he had learned from Jesus, or perhaps by means of God’s Holy Spirit.
We read in Deuteronomy 34:
Deuteronomy 34:4 Yahweh said to him, This is the land which I swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, saying, I will give it to your seed: I have caused you to see it with your eyes, but you shall not go over there.
Deuteronomy 34:5 So Moses the servant of Yahweh died there in the land of Moab, according to the word of Yahweh.
Deuteronomy 34:6 He buried him in the valley in the land of Moab over against Beth-peor: but no man knows of his tomb to this day.
From this, we do not see anything that suggests that Moses' body was preserved or taken to heaven as some have suggested. The only thing different about Moses' body that is revealed in the Scriptures is that Yahweh buried him somewhere in the valley in the land of Moab; we can further assume that Yahweh kept the actual whereabouts of Moses' grave secret for some reason. One suggestion is that Yahweh kept the location secret so that the children of Israel would not make a shrine of Moses' body that would give cause for the children of Israel to not follow Joshua into the promised land. Along with this, also it has been suggested that if the children of Israel had Moses' grave, that it could have lead them into idolatry. Whatever the reason, Yahweh did keep secret the location of where he had buried Moses.
We can speculate that Jude was making some reference to Moses’ body that was buried by Yahweh in a secret place. Jude's reference to an event related to Michael the Archangel and the Israelites at that time does indicate that Michael was already standing for Daniel's people long before Daniel was born. This would agree with the thought that Micahel is the prince of the host of Yahweh as spoken of Joshua 5:14.
Jude, however, says that in some way not revealed that there came to be a dispute regarding Moses’ body. We do not know what Satan wanted to do with Moses' body; we can speculate that Satan probably wanted to make the location of Moses' body known to the children of Israel in some kind of attempt to thwart God's purposes. Michael the archangel, being our Lord Jesus in his prehuman existence, disputed with Satan over the body.
The topic in context of Jude 1:9 is related to some who were railing against authority. (Jude 1:8) Jude presents the incident of Michael in that Michael did not rail against authority. Barclay writes of Jude 1:9:
If the greatest of good angels refused to speak evil of the greatest of evil angels, even in circumstances like that, then surely no human being may speak evil of any angel. -- William Barclay, The Letters of John and Jude (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1976), p. 221.
Although we would not classify the archangel as the greatest of good angels (which would make him an angel rather than the archangel), we do agree with the thought behind what Barclay stated. It is not that Michael the archangel, being the chief of the angels, did not have the authority to rebuke Satan, for he certainly must have. It was a matter of not being a railer against authority. Does this mean that Satan has been given authority from God? Originally, we believe that God did give the angel who became Satan authority (Ezekiel 28:13), but that Satan misused that authority in his endeavor to make himself like the Most High, thereby usurping authority not given to him. (Isaiah 14:14) God is permitting Satan to rule at the present time only to allow mankind to know what it is to experience the rule of evil.
Regarding Jude 1:9, James Coffman states:
If Jude had been thinking of the book of Enoch here, he would certainly have written, "Michael, one of the archangels," for that book names seven: "Uriel, Raphael, Raguel, Michael, Saragaej, Gabriel, and Remiel." F34 The word "archangel" occurs only in this verse and in 1 Thess. 4:16 in the New Testament; and it is quite likely that there is only one archangel, namely, Michael. "There can be properly only one archangel, one chief, or head of all the angelic host." F35 Other glimpses we have of Michael in the Bible always show him as the head singular of the holy angels, as in Dan. 10:13,21, and Dan. 12:1, and also in Rev. 12:7. Jude's usage of the term "archangel" is fully in keeping with this view, being certainly opposed to the apocryphal notions of a whole order of archangels. All of the diligence of scholars to find the source of Jude's letter in the shameful book of Enoch (not even in the Apocryphal section of the Catholic Bible) border very closely upon a denial of his inspiration.
34: Albert E. Barnett, op. cit. [The Interpreter's Bible, Vol. XII (New York and Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1956)], p. 329.
35: Adam Clarke, Commentary on the Bible, Vol. VI (London: Carlton and Porter, 1829), p. 952.Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Jude 1". "Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament".. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.
There are those who “see” something in Jude 1:9 that they allege disproves the idea that Jesus is Michael the Archangel. We have discussed this in an earlier study, so will not present a new discussion here.
1 Thessalonians 4:16
For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with God's trumpet. The dead in Christ will rise first.
Westcott & Hort Interlinear
John Gill, who believed that Jesus is God and also that Jesus is the Archangel, states concerning this verse:
with a shout;
the word here used is observed by many to signify such a noise or shout as is made either by mariners, when they pull and row together; and shout to direct and encourage one another; or to an army with the general at the head of it, when about to undertake some considerable action, to enter on a battle, and make the onset; Christ will now appear as the King of kings, and Lord of lords, as the Judge of the whole earth, attended with the host, or armies of heaven, and the shout of a king will be among them: perhaps the same is intended, as by the voice of a great multitude, as the voice of many waters, and of mighty thunderings upon the coming of Christ, the destruction of antichrist, and the marriage of the Lamb, in (Revelation 19:1,6,7,14,15) . The Vulgate Latin, Syriac, and Ethiopic versions render it, "in", or "with command"; and the Arabic version, "with his own government", or "authority"; that is, he shall descend, either by the command of his Father, as man and Mediator, having authority from him, as the son of man, to execute judgment; or with his commanding power and authority over the mighty angels, that shall descend with him: it follows,with the voice of the archangel;
so Michael is called, in (Jude 1:9) with which compare (Revelation 12:7) and who perhaps is no other than Christ himself, who is the head of all principality and power; and the sense be, that Christ shall descend from heaven with a voice, or shall then utter such a voice, as will show him to be the archangel; or as the Syriac version renders it, "the head", or "prince of angels"; and which whether, it will be an articulate voice, such as was expressed at the grave of Lazarus; or a violent clap of thunder, which is the voice of God; or the exertion of the power of Christ, is not certain.
Gill, of course, believed that Michael is Jehovah, since he believed that Jesus is Jehovah. While we believe that Jesus is Michael, we do not believe that Jesus is Jehovah.
Many claim that Jesus is the archangel here then it would mean that Jesus is also God, since it is said to be the trumpet of God. This is actually a false alignment as we shall see. We note that Paul used the Hebrew word “en” in all three instances. The word “en” is almost always used to denote instrumentality or location (either in place or time). The word "en" as used in 1 Thessalonians 4:16 appears to referring location in time. The phraseology may also be used to set the mode or emphasis of the the shout, the voice, the trumpet. Regardless of who gives the shout, Jesus comes at the locative time related to that shout. The symbolic “shout” is evidently actually a shout from Jesus, although it could be from someone else. Nevertheless, in harmony with all the testimony that we have examined that shows that Jesus is the archangel, the symbolic voice of the archangel is evidently the voice of Jesus himself, not of someone else. The voice itself is NOT Jesus, however, anymore than your voice IS you. The scripture does not actually state that Jesus has the trumpet, but if he does, it should be evident that the trumpet was given to Jesus from His God. If this is so, not only is it God’s trumpet, it is also the trumpet of Jesus, and thus it would be Jesus who symbolically blows this symbolic trumpet. This is similar to God’s “sheep” who are given to Jesus. (John 10:27,29) The last trumpet sounds, and the dead rise (1 Corinthians 15:52); he who calls the dead out of their graves is none else than Jesus. (John 5:28,29) However, if Jesus simply comes while the trumpet is sounding, the actual sounding of the trumpet could be from some one else. Many correspond the sounding of this trumpet with the last trumpet of 1 Corinthians 15:52 and the seventh trumpet of Revelation 11:15. If this is so, then it is the angel spoken of in Revelation 11:15 who actually blows the trumpet, and Jesus simply comes at the time of its being blown.
For further study on 1 Thessalonians 4:16, we refer the reader to:
Michael the Archangel
Michael the Archangel
We will now examine the verses in Revelation 12:7 wherein we find a reference to Michael. Without getting too sidetracked in trying to interpret all the details leading up to the mention of Michael, we wish to find the answer to the question: Is Jesus being represented as “Michael” in Revelation 12:7?
Revelation 12:7 There was war in the sky. Michael and his angels made war on the dragon. The dragon and his angels made war.
Adam Clark states:
Michael was the man child which the woman brought forth, as is evident from the context, and therefore signifies, as has been shown already, the dynasty of Christian Roman emperors. This dynasty is represented by Michael, because he is "the great prince which standeth for the children of God's people." Daniel 12:1.
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 12". "The Adam Clarke Commentary".
While we agree that Michael was primarily the one represented by the male child which the woman brought forth, we have difficulty with the rest of Clarke’s explanation. Revelation 12:1,17 identifies the “woman” as being the “woman” of Genesis 3:15. The seed of woman, although primarily Jesus, also includes all of the seed of Abraham. (Galatians 3:16,27-29) That the seed of woman is more than Jesus can be seen Revelation 12:17. Adam Clarke, like many Bible Students, assumes the woman to be the church.
According to Clarke, the seed -- the male child -- of the woman are the alleged “Christian” Roman Emperors; as far as we can see, he fails to connect this with seed of the woman of whom it is said: “who keep God’s commandments and hold Jesus’ testimony.” (Revelation 12:17) In fact, although there were those who claimed to be “Christian Emperors”, overall, they fell short of keeping the commandments of God and upholding Jesus’ testimony.
We believe that the problem most have with Revelation 12 is that they try to read the statements as being sequential in fulfillment, whereas, in reality the prophetic statements are not always sequential. The book, Revelation Notes, by the Southern Wisconsin Bible Students, pages 474,475, states concerning this:
We think that there is a good reason that the name Michael is used for Christ in Rev 12, as we will explain. The reason that we see the name Michael used is because the prophecy in that verse had backed up in time and is showing us the battle against Satan that has continued since the Garden of Eden, and which also included the entire Jewish age.
We agree that there has been an enmity between the seed of woman and the seed of the serpent ever since the Garden of Eden. (Genesis 3:15) If the war spoken of in Revelation 12 did begin in “heaven” long before Michael became flesh, then this war must have started either in the Garden of Eden, or sometime thereafter. Many of the angels folllowed Satan, especially in the days of Noah, when the angels left their own habitation in order take human form. Satan was then evidently cast out of heaven, so as to roam the earth. At that time, however, Satan was still allowed to come before God to accuse the servants of God. Thus, we believe that the war in Revelation 12:7 appears to refer to a much greater event, an event that would bar Satan from accusing the brothers of Christ. This took place when Michael, as the prehuman Logos of God, gave up the glory he had with his God and Father and became flesh -- possessing a glory a little lower than the angels -- as the seed of the woman.
Michael, as Jesus, was given a body that was not tainted by the sinful flesh that all mankind has as a result of Adam’s sin. His body of flesh was specially prepared by his God. With that body, Jesus, by means of his continued obedience to his God and Father, had the means to stand up against Satan. Jesus remained obedient, and thereby conquered Satan, But to fully accomplish this task, Jesus had to sacrifice his sinless flesh to pay the wages of sin for all mankind. As a result, a new race of sons of God could be created (a new creation) who was not tainted by sinful flesh. Due to the intercession of Jesus, Satan is no longer allowed to accuse the brothers of Christ.
Jesus, throughout his ministry in the days of his flesh, was assisted by the angels of Yahweh. (Matthew 4:11; Mark 1:13) Thus, Jesus, as Michael the Prince of God’s people, was constantly assisted by the angels all through his battles with Satan while Jesus was in the days of his flesh, until finally, Jesus, because of his obedience, declared the victory over Satan and his world, and the war had been won. -- John 12:31; 14:30; 16:11,31.
This had been a struggle between God’s plans and Satan’s plans, with Satan trying to stop God’s plans from succeeding. Michael is always shown in the bible as championing and carrying out God’s plans, even when Satan has tried to stop them. The name Jesus or Christ was not applied to our Lord until the first advent, when he finally defeated Satan with the blood of the ransom. Since the battle between good and evil had began while Christ was still Michael that is the name that is used in Revelation 12. Michael was always the Jewish nations champion and helper, but Satan was not fully overcome until the church could be covered by the ransom or robe of righteousness. Until that was done, he was Michael, but as soon as the battle was won when the ransom price was secured, Jesus could declare the victory. That is exactly what Rev 12 tells us had defeated Satan, in that “they overcame him with the blood of the Lamb”!
This view, in general, agrees with what we have already presented earlier in this study, that Michael, being the chief of the angels, the prince of Yahweh’s hosts, stands up on behalf of God’s people. The ultimate event of standing up for God’s people was that Jesus came to offer himself in sacrifice for the sins of the people; Jesus came to his own, but his own did not receive him. -- John 1:11.
We do not know, however, that Jesus is ever called an angel of Yahweh. The idea that Jesus is an angel of Yahweh usually is based on the false idea that that there is only one “angel of Yahweh.” In both the Hebrew and Greek, however, “angel of Yahweh” is anarthrous. Evidently, at least in the Hebrew, translators add the definite article “the” before “angel of Yahweh” to make it appear that there is only one angel of Yahweh, while the Bible also speaks of many “angels of Yahweh”.
Nevertheless, we need to point out that the thought is not that all of our enemies were destroyed when Michael became Jesus in the flesh and when Jesus completed the sacrifice of his flesh. Satan persists to be our enemy, and he continues, as a lion, to seek out those servants of the Master whom he may figuratively “devour.”
Therefore, after the war in the symbolic “heavens” was seen in the life and sacrifice of Jesus, and Jesus claimed the victory, Satan was figuratively cast down to the earth; he was no longer permitted to go into heaven and accuse the brothers of Christ, who with Christ, make up the “seed” of the woman. The reason is that Jesus’ righteous life, given on behalf of Adam and the world dying in Adam, now covered the “sinful flesh” of the believers in Christ. Additionally, they could now be acknowledged as “new creatures”, no longer under the bondage of sin and corruption that is common to all mankind dying in Adam (Romans 3:9; 5:12-19; 6:6; 8:1,3,15; , but, being “begotten again” (or many prefer, “born again”) of an incorruptible seed (Jesus had proven himself incorruptible -- 2 Timothy 1:10), the new creature is sinless, under no bondage except to which he willfully accepts in Christ, and is free to develop as a child of God into the perfection of divine qualities.
Satan, however, is very angry with woman (the covenant) and its seed (that is, the remaining ones of the seed), and thus persecutes the woman and her seed; this he does by many methods, by direct persecution by means of the authorities of this world, as well as by the spread of false doctrine which beclouds, especially, the true basis of and meaning of Christ’s sacrifice, which sacrifice is performed by the primary member of seed of woman, that is, Jesus. Satan has continued to this day in his works as pictured as a lion who seeking (among the believers) whom he may devour.
We plan to go into more detail regarding Revelation 12 in our studies of Revelation; here we only wished to touch upon the statement regarding Michael in Revelation 12:7. Verse 7 depicts Jesus as Michael the prince of God’s people, who stands up for God’s people.
We have seen that Jesus bears the same titles as Michael, and that Jesus performs the same work as Michael. We admit, and never have claimed, that Jesus ever came out and said that he was Michael, nor is there any scripture that directly states that Jesus is Michael. We do believe, along with many trinitarian scholars, that the evidence is overwhelming that Jesus is Michael the Archangel, although we believe that Jesus is also the firstborn creature (Colossians 1:15), which means that he was indeed created. Some Christians may conclude that Jesus is not Michael since there is no scripture that directly states that Jesus is Michael; we, therefore do not dogmatically affirm that Jesus is Michael, but we do believe that Bible does give us a lot of evidence that confirms that Jesus is Michael.
Originally published May 25, 2012; Updated and republished: July 5, 2015